Pronouns, Nouns, and Duplication

Klubnarg has exactly four nominal cases, and in the case of pronouns only three. Duplication of a pronoun will make it plural, however, it is not necessary depending on the context. Normally, duplication of a noun (or the first or last syllable of a noun) is used for forming a collective noun; i.e. er “a hair” > erer “hair”, gor “cloud” > gorgor “a group of clouds, cloudy sky, clouds”, etc. In other instances, duplication can be used to emphasize that a noun is plural, but it is usually unnecessary.

Nominative/PatientiveTopicalGenitive
1st pers. sing.bibimbo
2nd pers. sing.gigimgo
3rd pers. sing.hihimho
1st pers. pl.bibibibimbibo
2nd pers. pl.gigigigimgigo
3rd pers. pl.hihihihimhiho
CaseExample
Patientivebelnorg
Nominativebelnorgi
Topicalbelnorgim
Genitivebelnorgo

Distinction between the patientive, nominative, and topical cases can often be a bit ambiguous. In general, the topical case is used when marking the topic (either bringing something up or changing the topic of a conversation) and is often used for emphasis. In most cases it marks the object of a transitive verb, and may mark the subject of an intransitive verb, and often it can act as a sort of possessive form when used with the copula. The nominative case is almost always used to mark the subject of a sentence; when a topic is introduced with a transitive verb, it follows the topic, and when a patient is used (a new topic is not introduced), then it precedes the patient. The patientive case is used to mark the non-topical object of a transitive verb and the non-topical subject of an intransitive verb. The nominative case may be used for theĀ  non-topical subject of an intransitive verb; however, the patientive case is usually preferred and considered more correct. The following example sentences demonstrate the different uses of the cases:

  • Bim belnorgi nim. “I have a belnorg.” (As for me, a belnorg exists.)
  • Belnorgim b’narth iser. “I made the belnorg.” (As for the belnorg, I made it.)
  • Belnorgim firgi blos. “The belnorg’s color is pretty.” (As for the belnorg, the color is pretty.)
  • Belnorgo firgi(m) blos. “The belnorg’s color is pretty.”
  • Belnorg(i/im) bloso mlr. “The belnorg prettily shines.”
  • Him bo belnorg (el). “It is my belnorg.”
  • Bim belnorgi morn. “The belnorg protects me.” (As for me, the belnorg protects.)
  • Belnorgim bi morn. “I protect the belnorg.” (As for the belnorg, I protect.)
  • Bi belnorg morn. “I protect the belnorg.”
  • Belnorgi bi morn. “The belnorg protects me.”