Verb Inflection and Auxiliary Verbs

Verbs in Klubnarg have two different forms: the non-finite or infinitive form and the finite form. The non-finite form always begins with the prefix i- attached to the root, except in the cases of the copula verbs. The finite form removes this prefix and leaves the root by itself. Adjectives are also treated as verbs in Klubnarg, and thus have a non-finite and finite form.

  • inof (to speak) > nof (speak)
  • iluth (to be good) > luth (is good)

The finite form constitutes the non-past form and the positive imperative form of verbs.

  • B’nof (I speak), G’nof (you speak), H’nof (he/she speaks)
  • B’luth (I’m good), G’luth (you’re good), H’luf (he/she’s good)
  • Nof! (Speak!)
  • Luth! (Be good!)

The non-finite form combines with auxiliary and modal verbs to express other tenses, modes, and aspects. The non-finite verb is always placed after the auxiliary verb. The most basic auxiliary verbs are the four forms of the copula which are used to express negation and tenses.

  • ek (to not be): used for forming the negative non-past tense and negative imperatives
    • B’ek inof (I don’t speak)
    • Ek inof! (Don’t speak!)
    • B’ek iluth (I’m not good)
    • Ek iluth! (Don’t be good!)
  • inarth (to have been): used for forming the past tense
    • B’narth inof (I spoke)
    • B’narth iluth (I was good)
  • inaq (to have not been): used for forming the negative past tense
    • B’naq inof (I didn’t speak)
    • B’naq iluth (I wasn’t good)
  • el (to be): used for emphasis of the action, often for the future tense
    • B’el inof (I do/will speak)
    • B’el iluth (I am/will be good)

Other verbs with which the infinitive form is used includes verbs such as ‘to want’, ‘to like’, etc.

  • B’lir inof (I want to speak)
  • B’lir iluth (I want to be good)
  • B’thorg inof (I love/like to speak)
  • B’thorg iluth (I love/like to be good)
  • B’norg inof (I hate to speak)
  • B’norg iluth (I hate to be good)
  • Bi mek inof (I may speak)
  • Bi mek iluth (I may be good)

To ask a yes/no question, the particle fars is used at the beginning of the sentence.

  • Fars g’nof? (Do you speak?)
  • Fars g’narth inof? (Did you speak?)
  • Fars g’luth? (Are you good?)
  • Fars g’narth iluth? (Were you good?)

When using the verb with a pronoun, particularly in the nominative/patientive case, the pronoun often contracts. Contraction depends on the first sound of the verb.

  • bi and bibi contract to b’ and bib’ when the verb begins with n, th, s, z, h, l, or a vowel.
  • gi and gigi contract to g’ and gig’ when the verb begins with m, v, f, n, th, s, z, h, l, or a vowel.
  • hi and hihi contract to h’ and hih’ when the verb begins with m, n, l, or a vowel.