El/Ek vs Nim/Nek

In the Klubnarg language there are two forms of “to be”: ek and nim

The verb or copula el is used for stating something is something else. This verb may be dropped, especially in casual speech. Its negative form is ek, and their past counterparts areĀ inarth (was) and inaq (was not).

  • Bo belnorgim galufo prn el (My forehead stone is a symbol of good luck)
  • Him luth narg ek (He is not a good person)
  • Hih’narth inof nofnagim Klubnarg narth (The language they were speaking was Klubnarg)
  • Lepim bo born naq (The money was not mine)

The verb inim is used to say something exists or is owned. Its negative form is inek. For the past tense, inim is combined with inarth and inaq in its non-finite form.

  • Bim bloznargi nim (I have a friend)
  • Him mlori nek (He doesn’t have a house)
  • Gorgori gel selar narth inim (The clouds were in the sky)
  • Bo bloznargi mlor selar naq inim (My friend wasn’t at home)